### Abstraction-based synthesis for stochastic systems with omega-regular objectives

M. Dutreix, S. Coogan

*Nonlinear Analysis: Hybrid Systems*, 2022

#### Abstract

This paper studies the synthesis of controllers for discrete-time, continuous state stochastic systems subject to omega-regular specifications using finite-state abstractions. Omega-regular properties allow specifying complex behaviors and encompass, for example, linear temporal logic. First, we present a synthesis algorithm for minimizing or maximizing the probability that a discrete-time switched stochastic system with a finite number of modes satisfies an omega-regular property. Our approach relies on a finite-state abstraction of the underlying dynamics in the form of a Bounded-parameter Markov Decision Process arising from a finite partition of the system's domain. Such Markovian abstractions allow for a range of probabilities of transition between states for each selected action representing a mode of the original system. Our method is built upon an analysis of the Cartesian product between the abstraction and a Deterministic Rabin Automaton encoding the specification of interest or its complement. Specifically, we show that synthesis can be decomposed into a qualitative problem, where the so-called greatest permanent winning components of the product automaton are created, and a quantitative problem, which requires maximizing the probability of reaching this component in the worst-case instantiation of the transition intervals. Additionally, we propose a quantitative metric for measuring the quality of the designed controller with respect to the continuous abstracted states and devise a specification-guided domain partition refinement heuristic with the objective of reaching a user-defined optimality target. Next, we present a method for computing control policies for stochastic systems with a continuous set of available inputs. In this case, the system is assumed to be affine in input and disturbance, and we derive a technique for solving the qualitative and quantitative problems in the resulting finite-state abstractions of such systems. For this, we introduce a new type of abstractions called Controlled Interval-valued Markov Chains. Specifically, we show that the greatest permanent winning component of such abstractions are found by appropriately partitioning the continuous input space in order to generate a bounded-parameter Markov decision process that accounts for all possible qualitative transitions between the finite set of states. Then, the problem of maximizing the probability of reaching these components is cast as a (possibly non-convex) optimization problem over the continuous set of available inputs. A metric of quality for the synthesized controller and a partition refinement scheme are described for this framework as well. Finally, we present a detailed case study.